Reducing Scope 1, 2 & 3 GHG Emissions
To develop a net zero strategy, a first and crucial step is to track, quantify and validate all GHG emissions against a robust standard, such as the GHG Protocol. For this accounting process, GHG emissions are grouped into 3 categories: Scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions (see figure). From a business’s perspective, scope 1 emissions includes all direct emissions from owned or controlled sources, such as fuel combustion and company vehicles. Scope 2 emissions includes all indirect GHG emissions related to the generation of purchased electricity, heat and steam, while scope 3 emissions covers all other indirect emissions that occur in a company’s supply chain, e.g. raw material production and business travel.
Due to their varying sources, tackling a company’s scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions requires a wide variety of approaches, that are validated using frameworks such as the Science-based Targets Initiative (SBTi). Reducing scope 1 emissions can be achieved by phasing out and reducing fossil fuel use through, e.g., electrifying operations. Scope 2 emissions are best reduced by optimising & increasing energy efficiency as well as sourcing purchased electricity, heat and steam from renewable energy sources, such as wind, hydro power or nuclear power.
Scope 3 emissions, while often consisting of the vast majority of a company’s emissions, are more difficult to control due to their occurrence deep within global supply chains. Therefore, scope 3 strategies must target supply-chain actors, such as suppliers and customers, to help achieve carbon reductions within their operations. In the aquafeed industry, this includes working with suppliers to halt deforestation, restore degraded lands, and de-carbonize, whilst also engaging with customers and retail to improve food production efficiencies and reduce food loss.
Once emissions are reduced to the greatest extent possible, the remaining GHG emissions are removed from the atmosphere using either land-based (e.g. reforestation, enhancing soil carbon and biochar) and/or technological approaches (e.g. direct air capture, ocean alkalinity enhancement and converting carbon dioxide into durable carbon).